The current-carrying capacity of copper and aluminum wires is related to temperature. Generally speaking, as temperature increases, the resistance of the conductor increases, thereby reducing its carrying capacity. This is because at high temperatures, the electrons inside the conductor collide frequently due to their thermal motion, hindering the flow of current.

Specifically, the relationship between the current-carrying capacity of copper and aluminum wires and temperature can be expressed by their temperature coefficients of resistance. The temperature coefficient of resistance refers to the rate at which the unit resistance value of a material changes with temperature. Typically, the temperature coefficient of resistance for copper wire is 0.0039, while for aluminum wire it is 0.004.

For example, if a 2mm diameter copper wire with a length of 100 meters can carry a current of 10A at a temperature of 20°C, then when the temperature rises to 50°C, its conductor resistance will increase by about 15.6%, and the current carrying capacity will decrease by about 15.6%. It should be noted that this is just a rough estimate, and the actual situation will be affected by many factors.

In addition to temperature and temperature coefficient of resistance, the current-carrying capacity of copper and aluminum wires is also affected by factors such as conductor diameter, length, and external environmental temperature.

In practical applications, the appropriate wire material and specification should be selected based on specific conditions. Copper wire has relatively high carrying capacity, but it is also more expensive. In contrast, aluminum wire is lighter, cheaper, but its size needs to be adjusted accordingly to ensure safe current carrying capacity.

In summary, when selecting wire material and specifications, various factors need to be considered comprehensively, including but not limited to current carrying capacity, resistance, temperature coefficient of resistance, and external environment, to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the circuit.

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